Electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS, e-cigarettes) are increasingly used for the self-administration of nicotine by various human populations, including previously nonsmoking adolescents. Studies in preclinical models are necessary to evaluate health impacts of ENDS including the development of nicotine addiction, effects of ENDS vehicles, flavorants and co-administered psychoactive substances such as Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). This study was conducted to validate a rat model useful for the study of nicotine effects delivered by inhalation of vapor created by ENDS.


Male Sprague-Dawley rats (N 

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