Cannabis-Associated Psychotic-Like Experiences Are Mediated by Developmental Changes in the Parahippocampal Gyrus.

J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2019 Jul 18;:

Authors: Yu T, Jia T, Zhu L, Desrivières S, Macare C, Bi Y, Bokde ALW, Quinlan EB, Heinz A, Ittermann B, Liu C, Ji L, Banaschewski T, Ren D, Du L, Hou B, Flor H, Frouin V, Garavan H, Gowland P, Martinot JL, Paillère Martinot ML, Nees F, Orfanos DP, Luo Q, Chu C, Paus T, Poustka L, Hohmann S, Millenet S, Smolka MN, Vetter NC, Mennigen E, Lei C, Walter H, Fröhner JH, Whelan R, He G, He L, Schumann G, Robert G, IMAGEN Consortium

Abstract
OBJECTIVE: Cannabis consumption during adolescence has been reported as a risk-factor for psychotic-like experiences (PLEs) and schizophrenia. However, brain developmental processes associated with cannabis-related PLEs are still ill-described.
METHOD: 706 adolescents from the general population that were recruited by the IMAGEN consortium had structural MRI scans both at 14 and 19 years-old. We used deformation-based morphometry to map voxel-wise brain changes between the two time points, using the pairwise algorithm in SPM12b. We used an a-priori region of interest (ROI) approach focusing on the hippocampus/parahippocampus to perform voxel-wise linear regressions. Life time cannabis consumption was assessed using the European School Survey Project on Alcohol and other Drugs (ESPAD) and PLEs were assessed with the Comprehensive Assessment Psychotic-like experiences (CAPE). We first tested whether hippocampus/para-hippocampus development was associated with PLEs. Then, we formulated and tested an a-priori simple mediation model where uncus development mediates the association between lifetime cannabis consumption and PLEs.
RESULTS: We found that PLEs was associated with reduced expansion within a specific region of the right hippocampus/para-hippocampus formation, the uncus (p=0.002 at the cluster level, p=0.018 at the peak-level). The partial simple mediation model revealed a significant total effect from lifetime cannabis consumption to PLEs (b=0.069 95CI [0.04-0.1], p=2 x 10-16), as well as a small yet significant, indirect effect of right uncus development (0.004, 95IC [0.0004-0.01], p=0.026).
CONCLUSION: We show here that the uncus development is involved in the cerebral basis of PLEs in a population-based sample of healthy adolescents.

PMID: 31326579 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]


Source: ncbi 2

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