Macro- and microelement content and health risk assessment of heavy metals in various herbs of Iran.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2020 Jan 28;:
Authors: Moghaddam M, Mehdizadeh L, Sharifi Z
In this study, element content and health risk of the most popular herbs from Iran were evaluated. The samples of raw materials from 30 different herbs were purchased from the local markets of Iran. The concentration levels of some elements including macroelements (N, P, K, Ca, and Mg), micronutrients (Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn, and Na), and heavy metals (Cd, Ni, and Pb) of studied herbs were evaluated. The potential of health risks was calculated by Estimated Daily Intake (EDI), Target Hazard Quotient (THQ), and Hazard Index (HI). The analysis of variance (ANOVA) is used to test a hypothesis about differences between the mean values. The highest levels of Ca (20,000 ± 26.3 mg/kg), Mg (9600 ± 45.4 mg/kg), N (59,955 ± 11.55 mg/kg), P (6544 ± 20 mg/kg), and K (56,563.2 ± 18 mg/kg) were found in Zataria multiflora, Malva sylvestris, Acasia arbus, Cannabis sativa, and Amomum subulatum, respectively. In addition, the highest concentration levels of Fe (987 ± 75.27 mg/kg), Zn (1187.5 ± 10 mg/kg), Cu (64.2 ± 2 mg/kg), Mn (272.3 ± 66.62 mg/kg), and Na (2658.8 ± 20.3 mg/kg) were recorded in Bunium persicum, Peganum harmala, Papaver somniferum, Alpinia officinalis, and Cuminum cyminum, respectively. Acasia arbus, Anethum graveolens, and Malva sylvestris showed the highest concentration of Ni (6.07 ± 0.04 mg/kg), Cd (1.64 ± 0.16 mg/kg), and Pb (9.27 ± 0.25 mg/kg). Based on performed health risk assessment on the studied plants, EDI, THQ, and HI values of all of them were less than 1. This study indicated that there were several harmful elements in the herbs. The healthier plant species are those with the least concentration of Pb, Ni, and Cd, which include Vitex agnus-custus and Teucrium polium. On the other hand, the toxic plants with a higher concentration of Pb, Ni, and Cd included Malva sylvestris, Acasia arbus, and Anethum graveolens. In addition, evaluation of human risk assessment is an important factor for investigating the concentration of heavy metals harmful for human beings.
PMID: 31993898 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]
Source: ncbi 2