Monitoring Perinatal Exposure to Cannabis and Synthetic Cannabinoids.
Ther Drug Monit. 2020 Apr;42(2):194-204
Authors: Carlier J, Huestis MA, Zaami S, Pichini S, Busardò FP
PURPOSE: Drug use during pregnancy is a critical global challenge, capable of severe impacts on neonatal development. However, the consumption of cannabis and synthetic cannabinoids is on the rise in pregnant women. Obstetric complications with increased risks of miscarriage, fetal growth restriction, and brain development impairment have been associated with perinatal cannabis exposure, but data on synthetic cannabinoid use during pregnancy are limited.
METHODS: We reviewed studies that investigated the risks associated with cannabis and synthetic cannabinoid use and those that reported the concentrations of cannabinoids and synthetic cannabinoids in maternal (breast milk) and neonatal (placenta, umbilical cord, meconium, and hair) matrices during human pregnancy. A MEDLINE and EMBASE literature search to identify all relevant articles published in English from January 1998 to April 2019 was performed.
RESULTS: Cannabis use during pregnancy is associated with increased risks of adverse obstetrical outcomes, although neurobehavioral effects are still unclear. Analyses of cannabinoids in meconium are well documented, but further research on other unconventional matrices is needed. Adverse effects due to perinatal synthetic cannabinoid exposure are still unknown, and analytical data are scarce.
CONCLUSIONS: Awareness of the hazards of drug use during pregnancy should be improved to encourage health care providers to urge pregnant women to abstain from cannabis and, if cannabis-dependent, seek treatment. Moreover, substances used throughout pregnancy should be monitored as a deterrent to cannabis use, and potential cannabis-dependent women should be identified, so as to limit cannabis-fetal exposure during gestation, and provided appropriate treatment.
PMID: 32195988 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]
Source: ncbi 2