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Green and Chemical Syntheses of CdO NPs: A Comparative Study for Yield Attributes, Biological Characteristics, and Toxicity Concerns.

ACS Omega. 2020 Mar 24;5(11):5739-5747

Authors: Nasrullah M, Gul FZ, Hanif S, Mannan A, Naz S, Ali JS, Zia M

Abstract
Metallic nanoparticles (NPs) have enormous applications due to their remarkable physical and chemical properties. The synthesis of NPs has been a matter of concern because chemical methods are toxic. On the contrary, biological methods are considered eco-friendly. To compare the toxicity and the environment-friendly nature of the synthesis methodologies, cadmium NPs were synthesized through chemical (Ch) (co-precipitation) and biological (plant extracts as reducing agent) methods. Cadmium nitrate was reduced with NaOH, while in the biological method, the Cd ions were reduced by Artemisia scoparia (As) and Cannabis sativa (Cs) extracts. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis confirmed the pure single-phase cubic structure of green and chemically synthesized CdO NPs except As-CdO NPs that were crystalline cum amorphous in nature. The size of nanoparticles was 84 nm (Cs-CdO NPs) and 42.2 nm (Ch-CdO NPs). The scanning electron microscope (SEM) images exhibited an irregular disklike morphology of nanoparticles that agglomerated more in the case of green synthesis. The antioxidant and antimicrobial potential of NPs revealed that chemically synthesized NPs have better antimicrobial capability, while the antioxidative activities were better for green-synthesized NPs. However, the low yield, high ion disassociation, and waste (unreacted metal) production in the green synthesis of CdO NPs increase the risk of contamination to biosphere. Both types of NPs did not affect the seed germination of Dodonaea viscosa. However, chemically synthesized NPs were less toxic on plant morphological response. The study concludes that the chemically synthesized CdO NPs have better morphology, significant antimicrobial activity, and less toxicity to plant species compared to green-synthesized NPs. Moreover, during the green synthesis, unreacted metals are drained, which causes contamination to the ecosystem.

PMID: 32226852 [PubMed]


Source: ncbi 2

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