Effects of the Psychedelic Amphetamine MDA (3,4-Methylenedioxyamphetamine) in Healthy Volunteers.
J Psychoactive Drugs. 2019 Apr-Jun;51(2):108-117
Authors: Baggott MJ, Garrison KJ, Coyle JR, Galloway GP, Barnes AJ, Huestis MA, Mendelson JE
Entactogens such as 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, « molly », « ecstasy ») appear to have unusual, potentially therapeutic, emotional effects. Understanding their mechanisms can benefit from clinical experiments with related drugs. Yet the first known drug with such properties, 3,4-Methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA), remains poorly studied and its pharmacokinetics in humans are unknown. We conducted a within-subjects, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of 1.4 mg/kg oral racemic MDA and compared results to those from our prior similar studies with 1.5 mg/kg oral racemic MDMA. MDA was well-tolerated by participants. MDA induced robust increases in heart rate and blood pressure and increased cortisol and prolactin to a similar degree as MDMA. MDA self-report effects shared features with MDMA as well as with classical psychedelics. MDA self-report effects lasted longer than those of MDMA, with MDA effects remaining elevated at 8 h while MDMA effects resolved by 6 h. Cmax and AUC0-∞ for MDA were 229 ± 39 (mean ± SD) and 3636 ± 958 µg/L for MDA and 92 ± 61 and 1544 ± 741 µg/L for the metabolite 4-hydroxy-3-methoxyamphetamine (HMA). There was considerable between-subject variation in MDA/HMA ratios. The similarity of MDA and MDMA pharmacokinetics suggests that the greater duration of MDA effects is due to pharmacodynamics rather than pharmacokinetics.
PMID: 30967099 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
Source: ncbi 2