Item Response Theory analyses of DSM-5 substance use disorder criteria in French outpatient addiction clinic participants. How much is craving special?

Drug Alcohol Depend. 2020 May 12;212:108036

Authors: Kervran C, Shmulewitz D, Serre F, Stohl M, Denis C, Hasin D, Auriacombe M

BACKGROUND: To evaluate the dimensionality and psychometric validity of the 11 DSM-5 criteria for 5 substance use disorders, with a focus on craving, and taking into account age, gender and psychiatric comorbidities in a French sample of subjects seeking addiction treatment.
METHODS: This cross-sectional study, included participants with DSM-5 substance use disorders that sought treatment for at least one addiction from outpatient clinics. Diagnostic criteria were evaluated with the Mini international Neuropsychiatric Interview. In Current regular user (2 times per week), factor and 2-parameter IRT analysis was used to investigate the dimensionality and psychometric properties of the 11 DSM-5 SUD criteria. Differential Item and Test functioning (DIF and DTF) analysis were performed across sociodemographic characteristics and psychiatric disorders.
RESULTS: 1359 participants (alcohol n = 787, opiates n = 131, cocaine n = 141, tobacco n = 1014, cannabis n = 504), were included (68% male; mean age 38.7). One-factor dimensionality was confirmed, except for tobacco. Craving criterion had the strongest factor loadings, lower difficulty (range, -1.29 to -0.67) and higher discrimination (range, 2.11-3.05), and no DIF compared to other criteria. The tobacco criteria set functioned differently by mood and anxiety disorders.
CONCLUSIONS: We confirmed the unidimensionality of the 11 SUD DSM-5 criteria and furthermore that craving was the most selective criterion because of its psychometric properties and no DIF compared to other criteria, regardless of the substance in this adult clinical sample. Unidimensionality of tobacco criteria was not confirmed, suggesting DSM-IV abuse criteria limitations as indicators of the construct.

PMID: 32464467 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

Source: ncbi 2

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