Addiction. 2021 Mar 2. doi: 10.1111/add.15465. Online ahead of print.
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Reported rates of cannabis use among Canadian females are increasing. Female cannabis users progress to cannabis use disorder more rapidly than males (telescoping) and have higher rates of emotional disorder comorbidity. Addictive behaviors may change, along with mood and motivations, across the menstrual cycle (MC), particularly for females with pre-menstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD). This study aimed to determine whether increases in depressed mood and coping motives would predict increased cannabis use pre-menstrually/menstrually, particularly among females with PMDD. We also assessed positive mood and enhancement motive ratings to establish specificity of predicted depressed mood and coping motive results.
DESIGN: Observational study using data collected across 32 days using electronic daily diary methods.
SETTING: Nova Scotia, Canada.
PARTICIPANTS: Sixty-nine naturally-cycling female cannabis users (Mage =29.25, SD=5.66) with and without retrospectively-identified PMDD (via structured clinical interview) and prospectively-identified PMDD (via elevated pre-menstrual depressed mood). Self-reported MC phase was validated using salivary progesterone concentrations.
MEASUREMENTS: Depressed/positive mood, coping-/enhancement-motivated cannabis use, and cannabis use quantity.
FINDINGS: Coping motives explained heightened cannabis use pre-menstrually/menstrually in those with retrospectively-identified PMDD. Depressed mood explained increased cannabis use menstrually in those with retrospectively-/prospectively-identified PMDD. Moreover, prospectively-identified PMDD significantly moderated the relationship between depressed mood and cannabis use quantity menstrually. In those with prospectively-identified PMDD, positive mood and enhancement motives were associated with decreased cannabis use during the follicular/ovulatory phases. Females with versus without retrospectively-identified PMDD also displayed greater overall cannabis use quantity [M (SD)=3.44(2.84) standard joint equivalents versus 1.85(1.82), respectively; U=277.50, p=.008].
CONCLUSIONS: Depressed mood may explain heightened cannabis use menstrually in females with pre-menstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD). Coping motives may explain heightened cannabis use pre-menstrually/menstrually in females with retrospectively-identified PMDD.
Source: ncbi 2