Mol Psychiatry. 2021 Apr 7. doi: 10.1038/s41380-021-01069-2. Online ahead of print.
Considering the immense societal and personal costs and suffering associated with multiple drug use or « polytoxicomania », better understanding of environmental and genetic causes is crucial. While previous studies focused on single risk factors and selected drugs, effects of early-accumulated environmental risks on polytoxicomania were never addressed. Similarly, evidence of genetic susceptibility to particular drugs is abundant, while genetic predisposition to polytoxicomania is unexplored. We exploited the GRAS data collection, comprising information on N~2000 deep-phenotyped schizophrenia patients, to investigate effects of early-life environmental risk accumulation on polytoxicomania and additionally provide first genetic insight. Preadult accumulation of environmental risks (physical or sexual abuse, urbanicity, migration, cannabis, alcohol) was strongly associated with lifetime polytoxicomania (p = 1.5 × 10-45; OR = 31.4), preadult polytoxicomania with OR = 226.6 (p = 1.0 × 10-33) and adult polytoxicomania with OR = 17.5 (p = 3.4 × 10-24). Parallel accessibility of genetic data from GRAS patients and N~2100 controls for genome-wide association (GWAS) and phenotype-based genetic association studies (PGAS) permitted the creation of a novel multiple GWAS-PGAS approach. This approach yielded 41 intuitively interesting SNPs, potentially conferring liability to preadult polytoxicomania, which await replication upon availability of suitable deep-phenotyped cohorts anywhere world-wide. Concisely, juvenile environmental risk accumulation, including cannabis and alcohol as starter/gateway drugs, strongly predicts polytoxicomania during adolescence and adulthood. This pivotal message should launch more effective sociopolitical measures to prevent this deleterious psychiatric condition.
Source: ncbi 2