Environ Monit Assess. 2021 Apr 7;193(5):249. doi: 10.1007/s10661-021-09035-9.
This study presents the development of an analytical method for the simultaneous determination of multiclass illicit drugs (cocainoids, opiates, amphetamines, and cannabinoids) and psychoactive pharmaceuticals (anxiolytics, hypnotics, antipsychotics, antidepressants, and antiparkinsonian), in municipal wastewater. The analytical method was validated in terms of specificity, linearity, precision, and accuracy. The recoveries (%) for the majority of the analytes ranged between 70 and 120%, while the method showed good repeatability (2.4-29.2%). The limits of detection (LOD) of the method ranged between 0.8 and 9.4 ng L-1. The method was implemented on influent and effluent samples from Thessaloniki (N. Greece) wastewater treatment plant (WWTP), and it revealed the daily presence of benzoylecgonine (BEG) (84.0-202.2 ng L-1), methadone (12.3-17.5 ng L-1), 11-Nor-9-carboxy-Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC-COOH) (80.3-171.9 ng L-1), morphine (144.2-264.3 ng L-1), and 6-monoacetylmorphine (6-MAM) (5.8-12.0 ng L-1) in the influent samples of WWTP. Clozapine (101.6-315.5 ng L-1), quetiapine (33.5-109.7 ng L-1), and fluoxetine (20.9-124.4 ng L-1) were pharmaceutical psychotics with the highest concentration in the influents. Back calculation estimated that the daily consumption of cocaine, heroin, cannabis, and methadone was 36-95, 86-164, 2300-5400, and 8-12 mg day-1 per 1000 inhabitants, respectively. The consumption was estimated between 7-16 and 15 mg day-1 per 1000 inhabitants for methyl diethanolamine (MDEA) and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), respectively.
Source: ncbi 2