Sci Rep. 2021 Jul 22;11(1):14948. doi: 10.1038/s41598-021-94212-6.
Cannabis is a complex mixture of hundreds of bioactive molecules. This provides the potential for pharmacological interactions between cannabis constituents, a phenomenon referred to as « the entourage effect » by the medicinal cannabis community. We hypothesize that pharmacokinetic interactions between cannabis constituents could substantially alter systemic cannabinoid concentrations. To address this hypothesis we compared pharmacokinetic parameters of cannabinoids administered orally in a cannabis extract to those administered as individual cannabinoids at equivalent doses in mice. Astonishingly, plasma cannabidiolic acid (CBDA) concentrations were 14-times higher following administration in the cannabis extract than when administered as a single molecule. In vitro transwell assays identified CBDA as a substrate of the drug efflux transporter breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP), and that cannabigerol and Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol inhibited the BCRP-mediated transport of CBDA. Such a cannabinoid-cannabinoid interaction at BCRP transporters located in the intestine would inhibit efflux of CBDA, thus resulting in increased plasma concentrations. Our results suggest that cannabis extracts provide a natural vehicle to substantially enhance plasma CBDA concentrations. Moreover, CBDA might have a more significant contribution to the pharmacological effects of orally administered cannabis extracts than previously thought.
Source: ncbi 2