Saudi J Biol Sci. 2022 Mar;29(3):1465-1476. doi: 10.1016/j.sjbs.2021.11.025. Epub 2021 Nov 23.


Amphetamine is one of the most abuser drugs in Saudi Arabia. The aim of this study was to evaluate health status outcome at baseline and after detoxification in amphetamine users through the evaluation of the body mass index, renal function tests, cardiac biomarkers, gonadal hormonal levels, and oxidative stress markers. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 90 participants. Sixty participants were hospitalized patients for treatment of addiction and 30 participants were healthy volunteers. This study was performed at a psychiatric and rehabilitation center, in Qassim region, in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Participants were divided into: group I = control; group II = amphetamine users and group III = amphetamine plus cannabis users. Socio-demographic data was collected. The urinary amphetamine level, Severity Dependence Scale (SDS), body mass index (BMI), vital signs; serum levels of troponin T (TnT), immunoglobulin M (IgM), immunoglobulin G (IgG), luteinizing Hormone (LH), testosterone Hormone (TSTS), urea, creatinine, malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and catalase (CAT) were measured on admission and after detoxification. The results showed that the BMI was significantly decreased while, vital signs such as heart rate, blood pressure and respiratory rate were significantly increased in all abusers and returned to normal values after the detoxification period. The cardiac biomarker troponin T was significantly increased and reversed after detoxification. The immune system was evaluated through assessing serum levels of immunoglobulin (Ig) M and IgG. The immune system remained immunocompromised in drug users, and IgM and IgG levels did not reach the level of control group after treatment. Luteinizing and testosterone hormones were evaluated. Both hormones were increased on admission and improved after the detoxification period. Renal function showed no significant differences between drug users and the control group. In the evaluation of the antioxidant system, there was a significant increase in serum MDA, SOD, GPx, and CAT levels compared to healthy controls. After the detoxification phase, these oxidative stress biomarkers still remained elevated. The current results have shown the addiction of amphetamine and cannabis exert detrimental effects on different body organs and the exert major consequences on the health status of drug users. The present study showed that, there was no improvement in the levels of oxidative stress biomarkers, although an improvement was observed in the other parameters after the detoxification phase.

PMID:35280559 | PMC:PMC8913373 | DOI:10.1016/j.sjbs.2021.11.025

Source: ncbi 2

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