Perm J. 2021 May 12;25. doi: 10.7812/TPP/20.179.
Amidst a rapidly changing legal landscape, cannabis use in the United States has become increasingly common in the past several years. There is strong evidence to suggest that chronic and early cannabis use increases the risk of developing a psychotic disorder, and there is at least moderate evidence that suggests ongoing cannabis use among individuals with a psychotic disorder worsens clinical outcomes (eg, decreased psychiatric medication adherence, more frequent psychiatric hospitalizations). In this Review Article, we provide a focused, clinically oriented overview of the epidemiology and characteristics of cannabis use among individuals with first-episode psychosis; evaluation of cannabis use; and treatment modalities, focusing on behavioral interventions suitable for outpatient primary care settings. We discuss the limited data supporting pharmacologic interventions for cannabis use disorder, specifically among individuals with first-episode psychosis, and the unique potential of cannabidiol to serve as a harm-reduction strategy for individuals who are not able or willing to achieve abstinence for cannabis.