Neuromodulation. 2022 Mar 30:S1094-7159(22)00291-4. doi: 10.1016/j.neurom.2022.01.021. Online ahead of print.
OBJECTIVES: Placement of percutaneous spinal cord stimulator (SCS) implant has become a therapeutic option for various chronic pain conditions; however, early surgical explant still occurs. Unfortunately, evidence regarding the incidence of early surgical explant, and patient-specific factors and comorbidities associated with such, is limited and mixed. The objective of this retrospective analysis was to elucidate the incidence and predictors of percutaneous SCS explant within the first two years of device placement.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The PearlDiver-Mariner Patient Record Database of all payer claims was used to identify patients who underwent percutaneous lead SCS implant (leads and generator) with subsequent explant within two years of initial device implant. The primary outcome was to determine the incidence of SCS explant within the first two years of device placement. Secondary outcomes included evaluating the effects of several patient-specific comorbidities on explant rates using univariate regression analysis.
RESULTS: Across the database, a total of 52,070 patients who underwent percutaneous lead SCS implant were included, of whom 3104 (5.96%) had SCS explant within the first two years. Most explants occurred within the first-year time interval at 72.8% (2260 patients), whereas only 27.2% (844 patients) had SCS explant between years one and two. At the one-year time interval, covariates associated with an increased odds ratio (OR) (95% CI) of SCS explant were 1) depression (1.39 [1.26, 1.52]), 2) chronic preoperative (1.27 [1.16, 1.39]) or postoperative (1.23 [1,13, 1.36]) opioid use, 3) cannabis abuse (1.58 [1.20, 2.02]), 4) tobacco use (1.13 [1.04, 1.23]), and 5) coagulopathy (1.22 [1.07, 1.38]). In contrast, the OR of explant was lower in patients who were older, men, or had diabetes (complicated or uncomplicated). All associated covariates became nonsignificant after the first year of SCS implant (ie, between the first and second years), and only depression and tobacco use remained as associated factors for device explant.
CONCLUSIONS: Our retrospective analysis highlights that the rate of percutaneous SCS explant appears to considerably decrease after the first year of device implant. Furthermore, this analysis sheds additional insights into patients who may be at risk of early percutaneous SCS explant, especially within the first year of device placement, and underscores the importance of a continued multidimensional/biopsychologic assessment in patients with chronic pain.
Source: ncbi 2