Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 2022 Mar 30;179:102426. doi: 10.1016/j.plefa.2022.102426. Online ahead of print.
Many current treatment options for lung inflammation and thrombosis come with unwanted side effects. The natural omega-3 fatty acids (O3FA) are generally anti-inflammatory and antithrombotic. O3FA are always administered orally and occasionally by intravenous (IV) infusion. The main goal of this study is to determine if O3FA administered by inhalation of a nebulized formulation mitigates LPS-induced acute lung inflammation in male Wistar rats. Inflammation was triggered by intraperitoneal injection of LPS once a day for 14 days. One hour post-injection, rats received nebulized treatments consisting of egg lecithin emulsified O3, Budesonide and Montelukast, and blends of O3 and Melatonin or Montelukast or Cannabidiol; O3 was in the form of free fatty acids for all groups except one group with ethyl esters. Lung histology and cytokines were determined in n = 3 rats per group at day 8 and day 15. All groups had alveolar histiocytosis severity scores half or less than that of the disease control (Cd) treated with LPS and saline only inhalation. IL-6, TNF-α, TGF-β, and IL-10 were attenuated in all O3FA groups. IL-1β was attenuated in most but not all O3 groups. O3 administered as ethyl ester was overall most effective in mitigating LPS effects. No evidence of lipid pneumonia or other chronic distress was observed. These preclinical data suggest that O3FA formulations should be further investigated as treatments in lung inflammation and thrombosis related lung disorders, including asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, lung cancer and acute respiratory distress such as COVID-19.