J Obstet Gynaecol Can. 2022 Apr;44(4):436-444.e1. doi: 10.1016/j.jogc.2022.01.013.
OBJECTIVE: To provide health care providers with the best evidence on cannabis use and women’s health. Areas of focus include screening, dependence, and withdrawal; communication and documentation; pregnancy (including maternal and fetal outcomes); maternal pain control; postpartum care (including second-hand smoking and parenting); and breastfeeding.
TARGET POPULATION: The target population includes women who are planning a pregnancy, pregnant, or breastfeeding.
BENEFITS, HARMS, AND COSTS: Discussing cannabis use with women who are planning a pregnancy, pregnant, or breastfeeding allows them to make informed choices about their cannabis use. Based on the limited evidence, cannabis use in pregnancy or while breastfeeding should be avoided, or reduced as much as possible if abstaining is not feasible, given the absence of safety and long-term follow up data on cannabis-exposed pregnancies and infants.
EVIDENCE: PubMed and Cochrane Library databases were searched for articles relevant to cannabis use during pregnancy and breastfeeding published between January 1, 2018, and February 5, 2021. The search terms were developed using the MeSH terms and keywords and their variants, including cannabis, cannabinoids, cannabidiol, CBD, THC, marijuana, edible, pregnancy, pregnant, prenatal, perinatal, postnatal, breastfeed, breastfed, lactation, nursing, fetus, fetal, neonatal, newborn, and child. In terms of publication type, all clinical trials, observational studies, reviews (including systematic reviews and meta-analyses), guidelines, and conference consensus statements were included. The main inclusion criteria were pregnant and breastfeeding women as the target population, and exposure to cannabis as the intervention of interest.
VALIDATION METHODS: The authors rated the quality of evidence and strength of recommendations using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach. See online Appendix A (Tables A1 for definitions and A2 for interpretations of strong and weak recommendations).
INTENDED AUDIENCE: All health care providers who care for women of reproductive age.
SUMMARY STATEMENTS: RECOMMENDATIONS.