Plants (Basel). 2022 Mar 27;11(7):891. doi: 10.3390/plants11070891.
New hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) strains developed by crossbreeding selected varieties represent a novel research topic worthy of attention and investigation. This study focused on the phytochemical characterization of nine hemp commercial cultivars. Hydrodistillation was performed in order to collect the essential oils (EO), and also the residual water and deterpenated biomass. The volatile fraction was analyzed by GC-FID, GC-MS, and SPME-GC-MS, revealing three main chemotypes. The polyphenolic profile was studied in the residual water and deterpenated biomass by spectrophotometric assays, and HPLC-DAD-MSn and 1H-NMR analyses. The latter were employed for quali-quantitative determination of cannabinoids in the deterpenated material in comparison with the one not subjected to hydrodistillation. In addition, the glandular and non-glandular indumentum of the nine commercial varieties was studied by means of light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy in the attempt to find a possible correlation with the phytochemical and morphological traits. The EO and residual water were found to be rich in monoterpene and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons, and flavonol glycosides, respectively, while the deterpenated material was found to be a source of neutral cannabinoids. The micromorphological survey allowed us to partly associate the phytochemistry of these varieties with the hair morphotypes. This research sheds light on the valorization of different products from the hydrodistillation of hemp varieties, namely, essential oil, residual water, and deterpenated biomass, which proved to be worthy of exploitation in industrial and health applications.
Source: ncbi 2