Sci Total Environ. 2022 Apr 11:155156. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2022.155156. Online ahead of print.
The evolution of the behaviour of the Cannabis taxon in the Region of Murcia, Spain, has been analysed (in the cities of Cartagena, 1993-2020; Murcia, 2010-2020; and Lorca, 2010-2020). An attempt has been made to establish the origin of Cannabis pollen in this region to determine whether it is transported locally or from long distances based on air mass origins. Cannabis is an herbaceous, normally dioecious and anemophilous plant, which produces large quantities of pollen grains. It has been widely used for fibre (hemp), bird food (hempseed), essential oils and narcotics. The origin of Cannabis pollen grains has been established by calculating back trajectories at the altitudes of: 750, 1500 and 2500 m above mean sea level (m amsl); 350, 500 and 650 m amsl; and 10, 100 and 250 m amsl, using the HYSPLIT model. Considering this data, 29 days of Cannabis pollen potentially originating in Africa were identified in Cartagena, 19 days in Murcia and 15 days in Lorca. Of the remaining days, the air mass back trajectories showed local or regional pollen origins. These were 83 days in Cartagena, 61 days in Murcia and 56 days in Lorca. The presence of Cannabis in the bioaerosol of the Region of Murcia is irregular, and it is considered a minority pollen type. However, from 2017 to 2020, concentrations increased, with a positive and significant trend of 90% in the Annual Pollen Integral. The pollen season can be defined between June and August. This increase in the concentration of Cannabis pollen grains during this period coincides with an increase in local transport, suggesting the possibility of increased Cannabis cultivation in the study area.
Source: ncbi 2