Cannabis Cannabinoid Res. 2022 Apr 29. doi: 10.1089/can.2021.0165. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

Background: Phytocannabinoids naturally occur in the cannabis plant (Cannabis sativa), and Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) predominate. There is a need for rapid inexpensive methods to quantify total THC (for statutory definition) and THC-CBD ratio (for classification into three chemotypes). This study explores the capabilities of a spectroscopic technique that combines ultraviolet-visible and fluorescence, absorbance-transmittance excitation emission matrix (A-TEEM). Methods: The A-TEEM technique classifies 49 dry flower extracts into three C. sativa chemotypes, and quantifies the total THC-CBD ratio, using validated gas chromatography (GC)-flame ionization (FID) and High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) methods for reference. Multivariate methods used are principal components analysis for a chemotype classification, extreme gradient boost (XGB) discriminant analysis (DA) to classify unknown samples by chemotype, and XGB regression to quantify total THC and CBD content using GC-FID and HPLC data on the same samples. Results: The A-TEEM technique provides robust classification of C. sativa samples, predicting chemotype classification, defined by THC-CBD content, of unknown samples with 100% accuracy. In addition, A-TEEM can quantify total THC and CBD levels relevant to statutory determination, with limit of quantifications (LOQs) of 0.061% (THC) and 0.059% (CBD), and high cross-validation (>0.99) and prediction (>0.99), using a GC-FID method for reference data; and LOQs of 0.026% (THC) and 0.080% (CBD) with high cross-validation (>0.98) and prediction (>0.98), using an HPLC method for reference data. A-TEEM is highly predictive in separately quantifying acid and neutral forms of THC and CBD with HPLC reference data. Conclusions: The A-TEEM technique provides a sensitive method for the qualitative and quantitative characterization of the major cannabinoids in solution, with LOQs comparable with GC-FID and HPLC, and high values of cross-validation and prediction. As a spectroscopic technique, it is rapid, with data acquisition <45 sec per measurement; sample preparation is simple, requiring only solvent extraction. A-TEEM has the sensitivity to resolve and quantify cannabinoids in solution based on their unique spectral characteristics. Discrimination of legal and illegal chemotypes can be rapidly verified using XGB DA, and quantitation of statutory levels of total THC and total CBD comparable with GC-FID and HPLC can be obtained using XBD regression.

PMID:35486823 | DOI:10.1089/can.2021.0165


Source: ncbi

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