Front Psychiatry. 2022 Apr 14;13:866019. doi: 10.3389/fpsyt.2022.866019. eCollection 2022.
RATIONALE: Childhood maltreatment (CM) leads to detrimental mental health outcomes, such as substance use disorders (SUD). This study examined prevalence and severity of all five types of CM with respect to specific substances and sex in treatment-seeking individuals with SUD. The influences of type of CM and symptoms of depressiveness, anxiety, and perceived stress on substance craving at admission as well as craving reduction during SUD treatment were examined.
METHODS: N = 546 patients in treatment for SUD and N = 109 individuals in opioid maintenance treatment filled out questionnaires regarding CM (Childhood Trauma Questionnaire) and psychopathologies. Substance craving was assessed throughout treatment using the Mannheim Craving Scale. Group differences in CM, type of substance and sex were examined. General linear models were applied to examine influences on substance craving.
RESULTS: Higher prevalence and severity of all five subtypes of CM were observed in individuals with SUD compared to the general population. Women were more severely affected by emotional and sexual abuse than men. Patients with cannabis use disorder reported more severe experiences of emotional abuse compared to all other substances. Craving at admission to treatment was influenced by emotional abuse, however, symptoms of depressiveness, anxiety, and perceived stress contributed to craving at admission or craving reduction during treatment.
CONCLUSION: CM relates to SUD and should be incorporated in prevention and treatment of SUD. Underlying mechanisms of the association might relate to impairments in processing and regulation of stress, emotions, and interpersonal relations following a history of CM.
Source: ncbi 2