There has been a significant increase in the use of immunotherapy and cannabis recently, two modalities that have immunomodulatory effects and may have possible interaction. We evaluated the influence of cannabis use during immunotherapy treatment on response rate (RR), progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS).


In this retrospective, observational study, data were collected from the files of patients treated with nivolumab in the years 2015-2016 at our hospital, and cannabis from six cannabis-supplying companies. Included were 140 patients (89 nivolumab alone, 51 nivolumab plus cannabis) with advanced melanoma, non-small cell lung cancer, and renal clear cell carcinoma. The groups were homogenous regarding demographic and disease characteristics. A comparison between the two arms was made.


In a multivariate model, cannabis was the only significant factor that reduced RR to immunotherapy (37.5% RR in nivolumab alone compared with 15.9% in the nivolumab-cannabis group (p

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