of Psychology, University of Kentucky College of Arts and Sciences, 171 Funkhouser Drive, Lexington, KY, 40506-0044, USA.3Department of Behavioral Science, University of Kentucky College of Medicine, 1100 Veterans Drive, Medical Behavioral Science Building Room 140, Lexington, KY, 40536, USA.4Department of Psychiatry, University of Kentucky College of Medicine, 3470 Blazer Parkway, Lexington, KY, 40509, USA.5Center on Drug and Alcohol Research, University of Kentucky College of Medicine, 845 Angliana Ave, Lexington, KY, 40508, USA.AbstractRATIONALE:

Non-medical prescription opioid use and opioid use disorder (OUD) present a significant public health concern. Identifying behavioral mechanisms underlying OUD will assist in developing improved prevention and intervention approaches. Behavioral economic demand has been extensively evaluated as a measure of reinforcer valuation for alcohol and cigarettes, whereas prescription opioids have received comparatively little attention.


Utilize a purchase task procedure to measure the incremental validity and test-retest reliability of opioid demand.


Individuals reporting past year non-medical prescription opioid use were recruited using the crowdsourcing platform Amazon Mechanical Turk (mTurk). Participants completed an opioid purchase task as well as measures of cannabis demand, delay discounting, and self-reported pain. A 1-month follow-up was used to evaluate test-retest reliability.


More intense and inelastic opioid demand was associated with OUD and more intense cannabis demand was associated with cannabis use disorder. Multivariable models indicated that higher opioid intensity and steeper opioid delay discounting rates each significantly and uniquely predicted OUD. Increased opioid demand intensity, but not elasticity, was associated with higher self-reported pain, and no relationship was observed with perceived pain relief from opioids. Opioid demand showed acceptable-to-good test-retest reliability (e.g., intensity rxx 

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