MyD88-dependent and -independent signalling via TLR3 and TLR4 are differentially modulated by Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol in human macrophages.
J Neuroimmunol. 2020 Mar 20;343:577217
Authors: Fitzpatrick JM, Minogue E, Curham L, Tyrrell H, Gavigan P, Hind W, Downer EJ
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are sensors of pathogen-associated molecules that trigger inflammatory signalling in innate immune cells including macrophages. All TLRs, with the exception of TLR3, promote intracellular signalling via recruitment of the myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) adaptor, while TLR3 signals via Toll-Interleukin-1 Receptor (TIR)-domain-containing adaptor-inducing interferon (IFN)-β (TRIF) adaptor to induce MyD88-independent signalling. Furthermore, TLR4 can activate both MyD88-dependent and -independent signalling (via TRIF). The study aim was to decipher the impact of the highly purified plant-derived (phyto) cannabinoids Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD), when delivered in isolation and in combination (1:1), on MyD88-dependent and -independent signalling in macrophages. We employed the use of the viral dsRNA mimetic poly(I:C) and endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS), to induce viral TLR3 and bacterial TLR4 signalling in human Tamm-Horsfall protein-1 (THP-1)-derived macrophages, respectively. TLR3/TLR4 stimulation promoted the activation of interferon (IFN) regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) and TLR4 promoted the activation of nuclear factor (NF)-κB signalling, with downstream production of the type I IFN-β, the chemokines CXCL10 and CXCL8, and cytokine TNF-α. THC and CBD (both at 10 μM) attenuated TLR3/4-induced IRF3 activation and induction of CXCL10/IFN-β, while both phytocannabinoids failed to impact TLR4-induced IκB-α degradation and TNF-α/CXCL8 expression. The role of CB1, CB2 and PPARγ receptors in mediating the effect of THC and CBD on MyD88-independent signalling was investigated. TLRs are attractive therapeutic targets given their role in inflammation and initiation of adaptive immunity, and data herein indicate that both CBD and THC preferentially modulate TLR3 and TLR4 signalling via MyD88-independent mechanisms in macrophages. This offers mechanistic insight into the role of phytocannabinoids in modulating cellular inflammation.
PMID: 32244040 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]