Cannabinoid, Terpene, and Heavy Metal Analysis of 29 Over-the-Counter Commercial Veterinary Hemp Supplements.
Vet Med (Auckl). 2020;11:45-55
Authors: Wakshlag JJ, Cital S, Eaton SJ, Prussin R, Hudalla C
Purpose: The use of veterinary low tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) Cannabis sativa (ie, hemp) products has increased in popularity for a variety of pet ailments. Low-THC Cannabis sativa is federally legal for sale and distribution in the USA, and the rise in internet commerce has provided access to interested consumers, with minimal quality control.
Materials?and?Methods: We performed an internet word search of « hemp extract and dog » or « CBD product and dog » and analyzed 29 products that were using low-THC Cannabis sativa extracts in their production of supplements. All products were tested for major cannabinoids including cannabidiol (CBD), ∆9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), cannabigerol (CBG), and other minor cannabinoids, as well as their carboxylic acid derivatives (CBDA, THCA, CBGA) using an ISO/IEC 17025 certified laboratory. Products were also tested for major terpenes and heavy metals to understand constituents in the hemp plants being extracted and distributed.
Results: All products were below the federal limit of 0.3% THC with variable amounts of CBD (0-88 mg/mL or g). Only two products did not supply a CBD or total cannabinoid concentration on their packaging or website, while 22/29 could supply a certificate of analysis (COA) from a third-party laboratory. Ten of the 27 products were within 10% of the total cannabinoid concentrations of their label claim with a median concentration of 93% of claims (0-154%). Heavy metal contamination was found in 4/29 products, with lead being the most prevalent contaminant (3/29).
Conclusion: The products analyzed had highly variable concentrations of CBD or total cannabinoids with only 18 of 29 being appropriately labeled according to current FDA non-medication, non-dietary supplement or non-food guidelines. Owners and veterinarians wanting to utilize CBD-rich Cannabis sativa products should be aware of low-concentration products and should obtain a COA enabling them to fully discuss the implications of use and calculated dosing before administering to pets.
PMID: 32346530 [PubMed]