Investigating the sequential patterns of methamphetamine use initiation in Iran.
Subst Abuse Treat Prev Policy. 2020 Jul 29;15(1):52
Authors: Sarani EM, Ahmadi J, Oji B, Mahi-Birjand M, Bagheri N, Bazrafshan A, Manshadi MD, Yaghoubi S, Dezhkam A, Khatami M, Abdollahpour-Alitappeh M
BACKGROUND: Methamphetamine (MA) remains one of the most commonly used amphetamine-type stimulants, accounting for the second most widely-used substance after marijuana. Due to increased use of MA, a wide variety of research has focused on the patterns of MA use initiation among adolescents. Nevertheless, there are few data available for people who use MA. The present study set out to assess the sequential patterns of substance use initiation in patients with MA use disorders in Iran.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: This cross-sectional study described substance initiation patterns for 302 patients who used MA admitted to hospitals and psychiatric centers of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences. The study was conducted between April 2015 and June 2016. After obtaining informed consents, participants were interviewed by trained interviewers using face-to-face, semi-structured interviews. The collecting data were analyzed using the chi square tests and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) tests to compare the relationship between qualitative and quantitative variables, respectively.
RESULTS: Out of 302 participants enrolled in the study, 16 (5.3%) and 286 (94.7%) were female and male, respectively. The mean age of participants in the study was 37.29 years. The mean age of onset of MA use was found to be 15.9 years. 46.1% of the patients started MA use before 15 years. 77.2% of the patients who used MA had family members with a history of substance use. 93.71% of the patients who used MA started substance use with tobacco, alcohol, or opium, as the most frequent substances. Tobacco, as the first substance or starting substance, exhibited the most widely-used substance (69.53% of the cases). Tobacco-alcohol-cannabis-opium-heroin-MA sequencing was significantly related to the early onset of the substance use. Early-onset substance use was significantly higher in those with lower income, primary education, and family history of substance use. No significant relationship was found between employment status with the age of onset of substance use, and different substance use with marital status.
CONCLUSION: Tobacco, alcohol and opium can be considered as the main sequencing substances for initiation to MA use. Standardized measures to decrease and control access to main starting and sequencing substances, including tobacco, alcohol, and opium, can greatly help decrease the early onset of the MA use, develop suitable prevention, and establish early intervention strategies.
PMID: 32727512 [PubMed – in process]
Source: ncbi 2