Circadian rhythms and substance use disorders: a bidirectional relationship.
Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2021 Jan 11;:173105
Authors: Tamura EK, Oliveira-Silva KS, Ferreira-Moraes FA, Marinho EAV, Guerrero-Vargas NN
The circadian system organizes circadian rhythms (biological cycles that occur around 24 h) that couple environmental cues (zeitgebers) with internal functions of the organism. The misalignment between circadian rhythms and external cues is known as chronodisruption and contributes to the development of mental, metabolic and other disorders, including cancer, cardiovascular diseases and addictive disorders. Drug addiction represents a global public health concern and affects the health and well-being of individuals, families and communities. In this manuscript, we reviewed evidence indicating a bidirectional relationship between the circadian system and the development of addictive disorders. We provide information on the interaction between the circadian system and drug addiction for each drug or drug class (alcohol, cannabis, hallucinogens, psychostimulants and opioids). We also describe evidence showing that drug use follows a circadian pattern, which changes with the progression of addiction. Furthermore, clock gene expression is also altered during the development of drug addiction in many brain areas related to drug reward, drug seeking and relapse. The regulation of the glutamatergic and dopaminergic neurocircuitry by clock genes is postulated to be the main circadian mechanism underlying the escalation of drug addiction. The bidirectional interaction between the circadian system and drug addiction seems to be mediated by the effects caused by each drug or class of drugs of abuse. These studies provide new insights on the development of successful strategies aimed at restoring/stabilizing circadian rhythms to reduce the risk for addiction development and relapse.
PMID: 33444601 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]
Source: ncbi 2