Resuscitation. 2021 Mar 1:S0300-9572(21)00094-0. doi: 10.1016/j.resuscitation.2021.02.036. Online ahead of print.
BACKGROUND: Sudden cardiac death (SCD) may be triggered by daily circumstances and activities such as stressful psycho-emotional events, physical exertion or substance misuse. We calculated population attributable fractions (PAFs) to estimate the public health relevance of daily life triggers of SCD and to compare their population impacts.
METHODS: We searched PubMed, Scopus and the Web of Science citation databases to retrieve studies of triggers of SCD and cardiac arrest that would enable a computation of PAFs. When more studies investigated the same trigger, a meta-analytical pooled risk random-effect estimate was used.
RESULTS: Of the retrieved studies, eight provided data enabling computation of PAFs. The prevalence of exposure within population for SCD triggers in the control periods ranged from 1.06% for influenza infection to 8.73% for recent use of cannabis. Triggers ordered from the highest to the lowest risk increase were: physical exertion, recent cocaine use, episodic alcohol consumption, recent amphetamine use, episodic coffee consumption, psycho-emotional stress within the previous month, influenza infection, and recent cannabis use. The relative risk increase ranged from 1.10 to 4.98. By accounting for both the magnitude of the risk increase and the prevalence in the population, the present estimates of PAF assign 14.5% (95% confidence interval [CI] 4.9-28.5) of all SCDs to episodic alcohol consumption, 9.4% (95%CI 1.2-29.3) to physical exertion, 6.9% (95%CI 0.3-25.0) to cocaine, 6% (95%CI 1.2-14.6) to episodic coffee consumption, 3% (95%CI 0.4-6.8) to psycho-emotional stress in the previous month, 1.7% (95%CI -0.9-12.9) to amphetamines, 0.9% (95%CI -4.9-12.5) to cannabis, and 0.3% (95%CI 0.2-0.4) to influenza infections.
CONCLUSIONS: In addition to episodic alcohol consumption, a trigger with the greatest public health importance for SCD, episodic physical exertion, cocaine use and coffee consumption also show a considerable population impact.
Source: ncbi 2