Eur Heart J Case Rep. 2021 May 5;5(5):ytab168. doi: 10.1093/ehjcr/ytab168. eCollection 2021 May.
BACKGROUND: Myocardial infarction (MI) with non-obstructive coronary arteries presenting with ST-segment elevation can be challenging. Understanding the cardiac and non-cardiac causes aid in identifying the underlying diagnosis and deciding on the management. Neurological insult resulting in a mismatch of oxygen supply or demand to cardiomyocytes can lead to type 2 MI. Acute brain injury, such as intracranial haemorrhage, can induce cardiac dysfunction secondary to brain-heart interaction via hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and catecholamine surge.
CASE SUMMARY: A 50-year-old Caucasian male who vaped cannabis presented with epileptic seizures. A Glasgow coma scale of 7/15 necessitated urgent intubation. Electrocardiogram showed ST-segment elevation in inferior leads. Computed tomography of the head suggested intracerebral haemorrhage. He was stabilized in the intensive care unit (ICU). Subsequent imaging confirmed anterior communicating cerebral artery aneurysm and haematoma. Echocardiogram showed severe left ventricular dysfunction and hypokinesia in the left circumflex (LCx) territory. After step down from ICU, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging revealed transmural MI and myocardial oedema at LCx territory. Coronary angiogram was normal. Patient was treated with Levetiracetam and heart failure regimen. A cardiac defibrillator was implanted for secondary prevention and he was scheduled for elective neurosurgical intervention. A follow-up outpatient echocardiogram was normal.
DISCUSSION: Myocardial infarction with non-obstructive coronary arteries is uncommon. Though the majority is due to either plaque disruption or myocarditis, non-cardiac causes, such as acute neurological insults and substance use, should be considered. Scrutinizing the clinical presentation and using a meticulous approach with appropriate investigations are required to reach the correct diagnosis and appropriate management.
Source: ncbi 2