Am J Emerg Med. 2021 Jun 4;49:137-141. doi: 10.1016/j.ajem.2021.05.067. Online ahead of print.
This is a review of the underlying causes of the association of ST segment elevation and gastrointestinal symptoms such as abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, and anorexia, in patients who do not have chest pain. The review was based on anecdotal reports in Googlescholar and Pubmed using the search terms, abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, anorexia, ST elevation, myocardial infarction, and Takotsubo cardiomyopathy. Those patients who did not have acute myocardial infarction as the cause of the association of ST segment elevation and gastrointestinal symptoms were compared with counterparts with similar symptoms who had well authenticated acute myocardial infarction or Takotsubo cardiomyopathy as the underlying cause of ST segment elevation. The underlying causes of gastrointestinal symptoms which could be associated with ST segment elevation in the absence of either acute myocardial infarction or Takotsubo cardiomyopathy comprised pneumonia, pulmonary embolism, perforated gastric ulcer, intestinal obstruction, acute appendicitis, acute pancreatitis, acute cholecystitis, pheochromocytoma, bacterial meningitis, diabetic keto acidosis, and cannabis abuse. However, each of those disorders could also coexist either with acute myocardial infarction or with Takotsubo cardiomyopathy. The coexistence of ST segment elevation and gastrointestinal symptoms(without chest pain) was also documented in patients with esophageal perforation, mesenteric ischaemia, aortic dissection, Kounis syndrome, and in electrolyte disorders. In the context of presentation with gastroenterological symptoms but without concurrent chest pain, echocardiography appeared to be useful in distinguishing between « pseudo » myocardial infarction characterised by ST segment elevation in the absence of cardiac disease vs ST segment elevation attributable either to acute myocardial infarction or to Takotsubo cardiomyopathy.
Source: ncbi 2