Addiction. 2021 Jun 29. doi: 10.1111/add.15626. Online ahead of print.
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Although poor decision-making (DM) has been correlated with problematic cannabis use (CU), cross-sectional designs make it difficult to determine whether poor DM represents an antecedent and/or consequence of CU. The current study measured bidirectional associations between CU and DM among adolescents over 2 years and compared these findings to those observed with episodic memory, which is consistently reported as a consequence of CU. We also measured the role of DM as a risk factor for cannabis use disorder (CUD) onset.
DESIGN: Two-year longitudinal study with five bi-annual assessments.
PARTICIPANTS: Participants were 401 adolescents ages 14-17 at baseline.
SETTING: Miami, Florida, US.
MEASUREMENTS: CU frequency and CUDs were assessed at each timepoint through the Drug Use History Questionnaire and Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV, respectively. Neurocognition was assessed at odd timepoints through the Iowa Gambling Task, Game of Dice Task, and Cups Task (DM), and the Wechsler Memory Scale IV and California Verbal Learning Test II (episodic memory). We used latent growth curve modeling to examine bidirectional influences between CU and neurocognition over time. We applied discrete time survival analyses to determine whether baseline DM predicted CUD onset.
FINDINGS: Greater lifetime CU frequency was associated with poorer episodic memory at baseline (bs=-14.84, -16.44. ps=.038, .021). Greater CU escalation predicted lesser gains in immediate episodic memory (b=-.05, p=.020). Baseline DM did not predict CU escalation (b=.07, p=.421), nor did escalation in CU predict changes in DM (b=.02, p=.352). Baseline DM also did not predict CUD onset (adjusted OR=1.01, 95% CI [0.98 1.06]).
CONCLUSIONS: This study replicates findings that poorer episodic memory in adolescents appears to be a consequence of cannabis use, even among adolescents at earlier stages of use. Poor decision-making does not appear to be either a consequence of or a risk factor for escalating cannabis use or onset of cannabis use disorder among adolescents.
Source: ncbi 2