J Pers Med. 2021 Jun 29;11(7):615. doi: 10.3390/jpm11070615.
The neuropharmacology of marijuana, including its effects on selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI)/antidepressant metabolism and the subsequent response and tolerability in youth, has received limited attention. We sought to (1) review clinically relevant pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) interactions between cannabinoids and selected SSRIs, (2) use PK models to examine the impact of cannabinoids on SSRI exposure (area under curve (AUC)) and maximum concentration (CMAX) in adolescents, and (3) examine the frequency of adverse events reported when SSRIs and cannabinoids are used concomitantly. Cannabinoid metabolism, interactions with SSRIs, impact on relevant PK/PD pathways and known drug-drug interactions were reviewed. Then, the impact of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) on exposure (AUC24) and CMAX for escitalopram and sertraline was modeled using pediatric PK data. Using data from the Food and Drug Administration Adverse Events Reporting System (FAERS), the relationship between CBD and CYP2C19-metabolized SSRIs and side effects was examined. Cannabis and CBD inhibit cytochrome activity, alter serotonergic transmission, and modulate SSRI response. In PK models, CBD and/or THC increases sertraline and es/citalopram concentrations in adolescents, and coadministration of CBD and CYP2C19-metabolized SSRIs increases the risk of cough, diarrhea, dizziness, and fatigue. Given the significant SSRI-cannabinoid interactions, clinicians should discuss THC and CBD use in youth prescribed SSRIs and be aware of the impact of initiating, stopping, or decreasing cannabinoid use as this may significantly affect es/citalopram and sertraline exposure.