J Ethnopharmacol. 2021 Jul 2:114391. doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2021.114391. Online ahead of print.
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Mitragyna speciosa (Korth.) or kratom is a medicinal plant indigenous to Southeast Asia. The leaf of M. speciosa is used as a remedy in pain management including cancer related pain, in a similar way as opioids and cannabis. Despite its well-known analgesic effect, there is a scarce of information on the cancer-suppressing potential of M. speciosa and its active constituents.
AIM OF THE STUDY: To assess the potential applicability of M. speciosa alkaloids (mitragynine, speciociliatine or paynantheine) as chemosensitizers for cisplatin in Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) cell lines.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The cytotoxic effects of the extracts, fractions and compounds were determined by conducting in vitro cytotoxicity assays. Based on the cytotoxic screening, the alkaloid extract of M. speciosa exhibited potent inhibitory effect on the NPC cell line NPC/HK1, and therefore, was chosen for further fractionation and purification. NPC cell lines NPC/HK1 and C666-1 were treated with combinations of cisplatin and M. speciosa alkaloids combinations in 2D monolayer culture. The effect of cisplatin and mitragynine as a combination on cell migration was tested using in vitro wound healing and spheroid invasion assays.
RESULTS: In our bioassay guided isolation, both methanolic and alkaloid extracts showed mild to moderate cytotoxic effect against the NPC/HK1 cell line. Both NPC cell lines (NPC/HK1 and C666-1) were insensitive to single agent and combination treatments of the M. speciosa alkaloids. However, mitragynine and speciociliatine sensitized the NPC/HK1 and C666-1 cells to cisplatin at ∼4- and >5-fold, respectively in 2D monolayer culture. The combination of mitragynine and cisplatin also significantly inhibited cell migration of the NPC cell lines. Similarly, the combination also of mitragynine and cisplatin inhibited growth and invasion of NPC/HK1 spheroids in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, the spheroids did not rapidly develop resistance to the drug combinations at higher concentrations over 10 days.
CONCLUSION: Our data indicate that both mitragynine and speciociliatine could be potential chemosensitizers for cisplatin. Further elucidation focusing on the drug mechanistic studies and in vivo studies are necessary to support delineate the therapeutic applicability of M. speciosa alkaloids for NPC treatment.
Source: ncbi 2