Front Psychiatry. 2021 Jun 28;12:643107. doi: 10.3389/fpsyt.2021.643107. eCollection 2021.
Globally, cannabis is the most frequently used controlled substance after alcohol and tobacco. Rates of cannabis use are steadily increasing in many countries and there is emerging evidence that there is likely to be greater risk due to increased concentrations of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). Cannabis use and Cannabis Use Disorder (CUD) has been linked to a wide range of adverse health outcomes. Several biological, psychological, and social risk factors are potential targets for effective evidence-based treatments for CUD. There are no effective medications for CUD and psychological interventions are the main form of treatment. Psychological treatments based on Social Cognitive Theory (SCT) emphasize the importance of targeting 2 keys psychological mechanisms: drug outcome expectancies and low drug refusal self-efficacy. This mini-review summarizes the evidence on the role of these mechanisms in the initiation, maintenance, and cessation of cannabis use. It also reviews recent evidence showing how these psychological mechanisms are affected by social and biologically-based risk factors. A new bioSocial Cognitive Theory (bSCT) is outlined that integrates these findings and implications for psychological cannabis interventions are discussed. Preliminary evidence supports the application of bSCT to improve intervention outcomes through better targeted treatment.
Source: ncbi 2