Drug Alcohol Depend. 2021 Jul 21;226:108902. doi: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2021.108902. Online ahead of print.
BACKGROUND: Substance use is problematic in young women, particularly in pregnancy. We sought to determine whether pediatric surgery is associated with the subsequent risk of adolescent or pregnancy-related illicit drug use, including cocaine, opioids, cannabis, and other drugs.
METHODS: We analyzed a cohort of 167,119 girls aged five years or less in Canada with 4,693,444 person-years of follow-up. We tracked the girls over time between 1989 and 2018. The main exposure measure was pediatric surgery before 20 years of age. The main outcome included subsequent hospitalizations for substance use disorders and substance use in pregnancy. We estimated hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association of pediatric surgery with the later risk of substance use, using Cox proportional hazards regression models adjusted for patient characteristics.
RESULTS: Pediatric surgery was associated with 2.08 times the risk of future hospitalization for substance use disorders (95% CI 1.96-2.22) and 1.48 times the risk of substance use in pregnancy (95% CI 1.35-1.62), compared with no surgery. Associations were stronger for girls who had surgery under general anesthesia and were present regardless of age at first surgery or total number of surgeries. Pediatric surgery was associated with the use of cocaine, opioids, cannabis, and other illicit substances later in life.
CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that pediatric surgery may be associated with future substance use disorders in women, including substance use at pregnancy. Further study is needed to determine whether surgery may have a causal role in later drug abuse by women.
Source: ncbi 2