Addict Behav. 2021 Jul 19;123:107058. doi: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2021.107058. Online ahead of print.
BACKGROUND: Benzodiazepines are the third most commonly misused drugs in the U.S.
POPULATION: There is a growing public health concern related to recent increases in benzodiazepine-related overdose deaths, emergency department visits, and treatment admissions. Although benzodiazepine misuse often occurs along with other drug use, little is known about the association between benzodiazepine and cigarette smoking.
METHODS: We used a pooled dataset from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) for 2015-2018 (N = 171,766). We estimated a multivariable logistic regression model of past-year benzodiazepine misuse as a function of past-year tobacco use (cigarette smoking, other tobacco use), controlling for survey years, sociodemographics, past-year substance use, and psychiatric comorbidities.
RESULTS: Among the analytic sample (N = 171,766), 2.1% (weighted; unweighted n = 4,942) reported they misused benzodiazepines in the past 12 months. In the multivariable logistic regression model, correlates of past-year benzodiazepine misuse were past-year cigarette smoking (aOR = 1.85, 95% CI = 1.67, 2.06) and other tobacco use (e.g., cigars and smokeless tobacco) (aOR = 1.17, 95% CI = 1.03, 1.34), female (aOR = 1.14, 95% CI = 1.04, 1.26), uninsured (aOR = 1.26, 95% CI = 1.12, 1.42), past-year use of alcohol (aOR = 1.48, 95% CI = 1.21, 1.80), cannabis (aOR = 2.76, 95% CI = 2.46, 3.10), and other drugs (aOR = 7.92, 95% CI = 7.08, 8.86), as well as, past-year distress (aOR = 1.84, 95% CI = 1.61, 2.10), and depressive symptoms (aOR = 1.32, 95% CI = 1.16, 1.51).
CONCLUSION: Nicotine is independently associated with benzodiazepine misuse, even after controlling for other drug use and psychiatric variables. Future studies examining potential mechanisms linking nicotine and benzodiazepine use are necessary.
Source: ncbi 2