BMC Genomics. 2021 Aug 5;22(1):595. doi: 10.1186/s12864-021-07883-w.
BACKGROUND: Cannabis sativa L., a dioecious plant derived from China, demonstrates important medicinal properties and economic value worldwide. Cannabis properties have been usually harnessed depending on the sex of the plant. To analyse the genetic structure of Chinese Cannabis and identify sex-linked makers, genome-wide insertion-deletion (InDel) markers were designed and used.
RESULTS: In this study, a genome-wide analysis of insertion-deletion (InDel) polymorphisms was performed based on the recent genome sequences. In total, 47,558 InDels were detected between the two varieties, and the length of InDels ranged from 4 bp to 87 bp. The most common InDels were tetranucleotides, followed by pentanucleotides. Chromosome 5 exhibited the highest number of InDels among the Cannabis chromosomes, while chromosome 10 exhibited the lowest number. Additionally, 31,802 non-redundant InDel markers were designed, and 84 primers evenly distributed in the Cannabis genome were chosen for polymorphism analysis. A total of 38 primers exhibited polymorphisms among three accessions, and of the polymorphism primers, 14 biallelic primers were further used to analyse the genetic structure. A total of 39 fragments were detected, and the PIC value ranged from 0.1209 to 0.6351. According to the InDel markers and the flowering time, the 115 Chinese germplasms were divided into two subgroups, mainly composed of cultivars obtained from the northernmost and southernmost regions, respectively. Additional two markers, « Cs-I1-10 » and « Cs-I1-15 », were found to amplify two bands (398 bp and 251 bp; 293 bp and 141 bp) in the male plants, while 389-bp or 293-bp bands were amplified in female plants. Using the two markers, the feminized and dioecious varieties could also be distinguished.
CONCLUSION: Based on the findings obtained herein, we believe that this study will facilitate the genetic improvement and germplasm conservation of Cannabis in China, and the sex-linked InDel markers will provide accurate sex identification strategies for Cannabis breeding and production.
Source: ncbi 2