Pharm Biol. 2021 Dec;59(1):998-1007. doi: 10.1080/13880209.2021.1949356.
CONTEXT: Depression is a severe mental illness caused by a deficiency of dopamine and serotonin. Cannabis sativa L. (Cannabaceae) has long been used to treat pain, nausea, and depression.
OBJECTIVE: This study investigates the anti-depressant effects of C. sativa (hemp) seed ethanol extract (HE) in chlorpromazine (CPZ)-induced Drosophila melanogaster depression model.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The normal group was untreated, and the control group was treated with CPZ (0.1% of media) for 7 days. The experimental groups were treated with a single HE treatment (0.5, 1.0, and 1.5% of media) and a mixture of 0.1% CPZ and HE for 7 days. The locomotor activity, behavioural patterns, depression-related gene expression, and neurotransmitters level of flies were investigated.
RESULTS: The behavioural patterns of individual flies were significantly reduced with 0.1% CPZ treatment. In contrast, combination treatment of 1.5% HE and 0.1% CPZ significantly increased subjective daytime activity (p < 0.001) and behavioural factors (p < 0.001). These results correlate with increased transcript levels of dopamine (p < 0.001) and serotonin (p < 0.05) receptors and concentration of dopamine (p < 0.05), levodopa (p < 0.001), 5-HTP (p < 0.05), and serotonin (p < 0.001) compared to those in the control group.
DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: Collectively, HE administration alleviates depression-like symptoms by modulating the circadian rhythm-related behaviours, transcript levels of neurotransmitter receptors, and neurotransmitter levels in the CPZ-induced Drosophila model. However, additional research is needed to investigate the role of HE administration in behavioural patterns, reduction of the neurotransmitter, and signalling pathways of depression in a vertebrate model system.
Source: ncbi 2