Schizophr Res. 2022 Mar 11;243:120-137. doi: 10.1016/j.schres.2022.02.039. Online ahead of print.
Various environmental exposures have been associated with psychosis spectrum disorder. However, the role of gender in this association has received little attention. Therefore, we conducted a systematic review to evaluate gender-related differences and identified 47 research articles investigating the associations of psychosis with childhood adversity, substance use, urbanicity, migration, season of birth, and obstetric complication in the PubMed database. The findings suggest that childhood abuse may be more strongly associated with a risk to develop psychosis and an earlier age at onset of illness in women than in men. Furthermore, childhood adversity has been associated with the severity of different symptom dimensions in men and women. Growing up in an urban environment and immigration are more strongly associated with psychosis risk in men than in women. Despite a higher prevalence of substance abuse comorbidity in men diagnosed with psychotic disorders, it appears that the association between substance use and psychosis risk may be stronger in women. These findings should be evaluated with caution considering several methodological limitations, limited number of studies, and lack of consistency across results. Overall, although further investigation is needed, our review shows that gender-related differences in the associations of environmental exposures with psychosis expression may exist.
Source: ncbi 2