Environ Monit Assess. 2022 Mar 24;194(4):294. doi: 10.1007/s10661-022-09974-x.
In this study, the occurrence of illicit drugs and their metabolites in the sewerage systems and in the influent and effluent of wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in Konya, Turkey, was presented. The drug removal efficiencies of the central WWTP were investigated. Potential ecotoxicological risks for algae, fish, and Daphnia magna in the receiving environments were also evaluated. The highest estimated mean illicit drug use was obtained for cannabis (marijuana) at 280 ± 12 mg/day/1000 inhabitants and 430 ± 20 g/day/1000 inhabitants (15-64 years). Amphetamine was found to be the second most consumed drug of abuse. While cannabis and ecstasy consumption values were higher during the weekend, cocaine use dominated on weekdays. The removal efficiencies for THC-COOH and THC-OH were 100% in the WWTP. The average removal of cocaine, amphetamine, methamphetamine, MDMA, MDA, and methadone varied between 46 ± 7 and 87 ± 3%. The maximum concentration level of MDMA found can pose some low risk for Daphnia magna. The rest of the compounds detected in effluents did not show any toxic effects on fish, Daphnia magna, or algae. However, when the cumulative estimated risk quotient values were evaluated, there might be a low risk for Daphnia magna and algae in the receiving environment.
Source: ncbi 2