Clin Exp Dent Res. 2022 Apr 1. doi: 10.1002/cre2.564. Online ahead of print.
INTRODUCTION: In the last two decades, our understanding of the therapeutic utility and medicinal properties of cannabis has greatly changed. This change has been accompanied by widespread cannabis use in various communities and different age groups, especially within the United States. With this increase, we should consider the potential effects of cannabis-hemp on general public health and how they could alter therapeutic outcomes.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: The present investigation examined cannabis use for recreational and therapeutic use and a review of pertinent indexed literature was performed. The focused question evaluates « how cannabis or hemp products impact health parameters and do they provide potential therapeutic value in dentistry, and how do they interact with conventional medicines (drugs). » Indexed databases (PubMed/Medline, EMBASE) were searched without any time restrictions but language was restricted to English.
RESULTS: The review highlights dental concerns of cannabis usage, the need to understand the endocannabinoid system (ECS), cannabinoid receptor system, its endogenous ligands, pharmacology, metabolism, current oral health, and medical dilemma to ascertain the detrimental or beneficial effects of using cannabis-hemp products. The pharmacological effects of pure cannabidiol (CBD) have been studied extensively while cannabis extracts can vary significantly and lack empirical studies. Several metabolic pathways are affected by cannabis use and could pose a potential drug interaction. The chronic use of cannabis is associated with health issues, but the therapeutic potential is multifold since there is a regulatory role of ECS in many pathologies.
CONCLUSION: Current shortcomings in understanding the benefits of cannabis or hemp products are limited due to pharmacological and clinical effects not being predictable, while marketed products vary greatly in phytocompounds warrant further empirical investigation. Given the healthcare challenges to manage acute and chronic pain, this review highlights both cannabis and CBD-hemp extracts to help identify the therapeutic application for patient populations suffering from anxiety, inflammation, and dental pain.