Compr Psychiatry. 2022 Mar 14;115:152310. doi: 10.1016/j.comppsych.2022.152310. Online ahead of print.
INTRODUCTION: Psychotic disorder not otherwise specified (PNOS) is considered part of the psychosis spectrum, together with schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSD) and psychotic bipolar spectrum disorders (PBD). The atypical clinical presentations of PNOS conditions may lead to uncertainty regarding treatment choices and expected outcomes. PNOS is understudied, and little is known about patients’ premorbid characteristics including premorbid adjustment, prevalence of early cannabis use and childhood trauma. Knowledge about early illness phases can increase our understanding of this diagnostic group.
METHODS: We included 1099 participants from the Norwegian TOP-study; 688 with narrow SSD diagnoses (schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, schizophreniform disorder), 274 with PBD (psychotic bipolar 1 and bipolar NOS) and 137 with PNOS diagnosed with the SCID-I for DSM-IV. Participants were assessed with the Premorbid Adjustment Scale (PAS) divided into the areas of premorbid academic and social functioning. We obtained information on age at first exposure to cannabis and use of cannabis before the age of 16. The participants also provided information regarding early traumatic experiences using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ).
RESULTS: Participants with PNOS and SSD had poorer premorbid academic functioning than those with PBD (F2, 1029 = 7.81, p < 0.001, pη2 = 0.015). Premorbid social adjustment was significantly worse in the SSD group compared to the PBD group (F2, 1024 = 3.10, p = 0.045, pη2 = 0.006), with PNOS in the middle position. Significantly more of the participants with PNOS (17.5%) and SSD (11.5%) used cannabis before the age of 16 compared with PBD (5.3%, Wald χ2 = 6.86, p = 0.03). There were no significant differences between the three groups regarding mean CTQ scores or in the proportion of participants who had experienced at least one type of childhood adversity.
CONCLUSIONS: Participants with PNOS appear as more similar to participants with SSD than to those with PBD regarding early premorbid adjustment and early cannabis use. The results indicate that many conditions classified as PNOS have functional impairments and problematic substance use from an early age. The prevalence of childhood adversities are high in all three groups.
Source: ncbi 2