Molecules. 2022 Apr 5;27(7):2339. doi: 10.3390/molecules27072339.
Hemp seed by-products, namely hemp cake (hemp meal) and hemp hulls were studied for their lipid content and composition. Total lipid content of hemp cake and hemp hulls was 13.1% and 17.5%, respectively. Oil extraction yields using hexane, on the other hand, were much lower in hemp cake (7.4%) and hemp hulls (12.1%). Oil derived from both hemp seeds and by-products were primarily composed of neutral lipids (>97.1%), mainly triacylglycerols (TAGs), determined by SPE and confirmed by NMR study. Linoleic acid was the major fatty acid present in oils derived from hemp by-products, covering almost 55%, followed by α-linolenic acid, covering around 18% of the total fatty acids. For the first time, 47 intact TAGs were identified in the hemp oils using UPLC-HRMS. Among them, TAGs with fatty acid acyl chain 18:3/18:2/18:2 and 18:3/18:2/18:1 were the major ones, followed by TAGs with fatty acid acyl chain of 18:3/18:3/18:2, 18:2/18:2/16:0, 18:2/18:2/18:1, 18:3/18:2.18:0, 18:2/18:2/18:0, 18:2/18:1/18:1 and 18:3/18:2:16:0. Besides TAGs, low levels of terpenes, carotenoids and cannabidiolic acid were also detected in the oils. Moreover, the oils extracted from hemp by-products possessed a dose-dependent DPPH radical scavenging property and their potencies were in a similar range compared to other vegetable oils.